J Med Assoc Thai 2009; 92 (12):75

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Dietary Sodium Intake by Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire among Undergraduate Students of Mahidol University
Pavadhgul P Mail, Sunthonwaraluk S , Srisorachatr S , Temcharoen P

Objective: To assess sodium intake and identify its sources among undergraduate students aged 17 to 20 years
who lived in the dormitory of Mahidol University, Salaya Campus.

Material and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among 170 students in July 2007. Data were
collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire.

Results: The mean total daily sodium intake was 5,225.0 + 2,228.9 mg for males and 4,497.9 + 2,091.2 mg for
females. Male students consumed significantly higher sodium than females (p = 0.030). Daily sodium intake
mainly came from one plate meals in the campus cafeteria which the average was 2,852.3 + 1,421.8 mg/day in
males and 2,042.3 + 1,214.2 mg/day in females. Males consumed significantly higher sodium from one plate
meals than females (p < 0.001). In addition, the average sodium intake from seasoning added during
consumption was 539.8 + 498.8 mg/ day in males and 473.3 + 514.5 mg/ day in females. Dietary sodium intake
among students was 2-fold higher than recommended amount (2,400 mg per day).

The findings revealed that the undergraduate students who mainly consumed one plate meals are
at risk of high sodium intake. Nutrition promotion for reducing sodium consumption in students and food
vendors is needed for early prevention of chronic diseases in later life.

Sodium intake, Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, Undergraduate students

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