J Med Assoc Thai 2021; 104 (10):1604-9

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Ganciclovir Treatment in Symptomatic Congenital CMV Infection at Siriraj Hospital: 11 Year-Review (2008 to 2019)
Wongwathanavikrom N , Lapphra K , Thongyai K , Vanprapar N , Chokephaibulkit K Mail

Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common non-genetic cause of permanent sensorineural hearing loss in infants and children. A 6-month course of intravenous ganciclovir or valganciclovir is recommended for treatment of patients with moderate to severe symptomatic congenital CMV disease. Hearing status improvement has been reported in those that received treatment within the first month of life. In Thailand, there has been no data of antiviral treatment in symptomatic congenital CMV patients.

Objective: To determine the incidence of symptomatic congenital CMV infection in the past 11 years and to evaluate the hearing, neurological, and developmental outcomes of the antiviral treatment and factors associated with hearing outcomes.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed at Siriraj Hospital, between January 2008 and December 2019. The medical records of the patients diagnosed of symptomatic congenital CMV infection (ICD10-P351) were reviewed.

Results: The incidence of symptomatic congenital CMV infection was 0 to 1.01 case per 1,000 livebirths. Of the 52 patients, 18 received 6-week course of ganciclovir and five continued with oral valganciclovir for three to six months. Developmental delayed was found in 69.2% (36). No difference in hearing outcomes at 6 and 12 months of age between the patients who did or did not receive treatment. Among 24 (46.1%) children who underwent hearing test at two to three years of age, the birth characteristics, as well as antiviral treatment (attributable risk 0.007, 95% CI –0.4 to 0.4, p=0.973), had no difference in hearing outcome. Long-term disability was diagnosed in the lower proportion among the patients receiving antiviral treatment (attributable risk –0.3, 95% CI –0.5 to –0.1, p=0.030).

Conclusion: Symptomatic congenital CMV infection resulted in poor hearing and developmental outcomes. Antiviral treatment reduced risk of disability but did not improve hearing outcomes. The results underscore the need for early diagnosis and initiation of antiviral treatment in infants with symptomatic congenital CMV.

Keywords: Congenital infection; CMV; Hearing loss; Ganciclovir; Valganciclovir; Disability

DOI: doi.org/10.35755/jmedassocthai.2021.10.12690

Received 23 March 2021 | Revised 16 August 2021 | Accepted 20 August 2021


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