J Med Assoc Thai 2023; 106 (3):235-43

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Efficacy of Preoperative Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Before Cesarean Section in Placenta Previa: A Randomized Double Blind Control Trial
Chaiyakarn S Mail, Lerthiranwong T

Background: Placenta previa is a common cause of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) that contributes substantively to maternal morbidity and mortality rates. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic drug that is useful for the treatment of PPH. The recommendation from many guidelines is to start giving tranexamic acid as soon as PPH is diagnosed to reduce postpartum blood loss. Furthermore, some studies report the beneficial use of tranexamic acid given as a prophylactic before Cesarean section to decrease intraoperative blood loss and prevent PPH. To the authors’ knowledge, in high-risk obstetrics case such as placenta previa, there was insufficient data to support recommendations of the use of tranexamic acid for prevent PPH.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of supplementary intravenous tranexamic acid before cesarean section versus prophylactic intravenous oxytocin after placenta delivery alone to decrease intraoperative blood loss and prevent PPH in placenta previa.

Material and Methods: The present study conducted a double blinded placebo control trial comparing adjunct 1 g tranexamic acid given intravenously before skin incision with prophylactic intravenous oxytocin after placenta delivery alone before cesarean section for placenta previa. The study recruited 60 women who were diagnosed with placenta previa at gestational age (GA) of more than 28 completed weeks undergoing emergency cesarean section due to active bleeding or scheduled for elective cesarean section at 37 completed weeks at Chonburi Hospital between July 2021 and July 2022. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss.

Results: Sixty diagnosed placenta previa women were recruited, with 30 patients per group. Group I patients were given 1 g tranexamic acid and Group II were given a placebo of 100 ml NSS before skin incision. Both groups received intravenous oxytocin 20 units after placenta delivery. The main outcome showed that preoperative tranexamic acid intravenous reduced intraoperative blood loss significantly compared with the placebo at 349.5 ml (range of 168 to 2,200) versus 619 ml (range of 288 to 3,243), p<0.001. The secondary outcome showed a significant decrease in the incidence of PPH at 4 (13.33%) versus 10 (33.33%), p=0.030 and decreased in the incidence of blood transfusion of more than one unit from 5 (16.67%) versus 13 (43.33%), p=0.047.

Conclusion: Prophylactic supplementary 1 g tranexamic acid intravenously before cesarean section to prophylactic intravenous oxytocin after placental delivery was found to effectively reduce intraoperative blood loss and PPH.

Keywords: Tranexamic acid; Preoperative; Placenta previa; Intraoperative blood loss; Cesarean section

DOI: 10.35755/jmedassocthai.2023.03.13798

Received 10 October 2022 | Revised 10 January 2023 | Accepted 20 January 2023

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