J Med Assoc Thai 2010; 93 (12):83

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Determination of Phenolic Compounds, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant Activities in Water Extracts of Thai Red and White Rice Cultivars
Srisawat U Mail, Panunto W , Kaendee N , Tanuchit S , Itharat A , Lerdvuthisopon N , Hansakul P

Background: Free radical-induced oxidative stress damages cellular components leading to many human diseases. Plantderived
antioxidant compounds have become a profitable alternative to prevent oxidative stress in cells.

Objective: To determine and compare total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant activity using both chemical
and cell assays in the water extracts of brown rice and rice bran from two Thai rice cultivars: Sangyod, a red pigmented rice
typically grown in Southern Thailand, and Dawk Mali 105, a commercial white-colored rice.

Material and Method:
All the rice water extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic and flavonoid contents using the
colorimetric assays, as well as for their antioxidant activity through two chemical assays: DPPH radical-scavenging and
inhibition of lipid peroxidation assays, as well as through cell-based assays: scavenging capacity of intracellular ROS in HL-
60 cells using the fluorescent DCF and the NBT reduction.

Results: The two chemical assays detected free radical scavenging and free radical chain breaking activities in all the rice
extracts with EC50 values ranging from 26 to 357 μg/ml. Moreover, the cell-based assays detected ROS scavenging activities
of these extracts with EC50 values in the range of 0.6 - 5 mg/ml. All these assays indicated that the water extracts of Sangyod
exerted significantly higher antioxidant activity than those of Dawk Mali 105, which exhibited only moderate to low activity.
Furthermore, high levels of antioxidant activity of the water extracts of Sangyod were closely correlated to their flavonoid and
phenolic contents, which were approximately 2.5 and 3 times higher, respectively, than those of Dawk Mali 105.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that water extracts from colored brown rice or colored rice bran can be promising
sources of potential natural antioxidants.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Red rice, Brown rice, Rice bran, Water extract

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Related Correction: CORRECTION (Vol 94, No 7: JULY 2011)