J Med Assoc Thai 2010; 93 (12):1451

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Cadmium-Exposed Population in Mae Sot District, Tak Province: 4 Bone Mineral Density in Persons with High Cadmium Exposure
Limpatanachote P Mail, Swaddiwudhipong W , Nishijo M , Honda R , Mahasakpan P , Nambunmee K , Ruangyuttikarn W

Objective: To measure bone mineral density in cadmium-exposed persons aged 40 years and older that lived in the 12
contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand.

Material and Method: Five hundred seventy three persons with urinary cadmium levels > 5 μg/g creatinine during the
2004-2006 surveys were screened in 2007 for urinary excretion of cadmium, bone formation and resorption markers, and
renal function markers. Calcaneus bone density was measured in each person by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone
scanner.

Results: The mean age of the study persons was 57 years old. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women was
significantly higher than that for men. Women had a lower mean of calcaneus bone density than men. The rate of osteoporosis
in women (21.5%) was significantly higher than that for men (14.7%). Calcaneus bone density was negatively correlated with
urinary excretion of calcium (in both genders) and crosslinked N-telopeptide of type I collagen (in women), after adjusting for
other co-variables. Increasing urinary cadmium levels appeared to correlate with reduced bone density in women, but not in
men. In both genders, urinary excretion of β2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase was higher in persons with
osteoporosis than those without.

Conclusion: Bone mineral loss is correlated with urinary cadmium levels and renal dysfunction in this female population.

Keywords: Cadmium, Urinary cadmium, Bone mineral density, Osteoporosis, Renal dysfunction

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