J Med Assoc Thai 2012; 95 (6):154

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Exposure to Trinitrotoluene and Health Effects among Workers in an Artillery and Ammunition Plant
Kongtip P Mail, Preklang S , Yoosook W , Chantanakul S

Objective: To determine urinary trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT) and 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT) and health effects upon workers in an ammunition plant.
Material and Method: The urine samples from forty munition workers and forty office workers were monitored for TNT and its metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The workers were interviewed with a questionnaire.
Results: The median levels of TNT and its metabolites were 112.84 and ranged from non-detectable (ND) to 1,833.81 mg/L. Median levels for 2ADNT were 11.66, ranging from ND to 360.89 mg/L. Median levels for 4ADNT were 19.95 and ranged from ND to 314.28 mg/L. There were significant correlations between TNT and 2ADNT in urine (r = 0.700, p-value < 0.001), as well as for TNT and 4ADNT (r = 0.783, p-value < 0.001). Exposed workers reported eye, nose and throat irritations, weakness and headaches with considerably higher frequency than non-exposed workers.
Conclusion: TNT levels in urine were strongly associated with 4ADNT and 2ADNT levels. Workers exposed to TNT complained of nose, throat and eye irritation, along with overall weakness and headaches.

Keywords: 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT), Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS)


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