J Med Assoc Thai 2001; 84 (6):821

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Fetal Exencephaly Arising as a Result of Preimplantation Exposure to Ammonium Chloride
Sinawat S Mail

Objectives : To investigate the effect of preimplantation exposure to 0.6 mM ammonium
chloride on both preimplantation and postimplantation development of (F1 x F1) strain mouse
embryos.
Method : Two-cell stage mouse embryos were randomly allocated to culture in either
M16 medium or M16 added with 0.6
mM
ammonium chloride for 2 days before being transferred
to 2.5 day pseudopregnant recipients. Embryo morphology was assessed after 1 and 2 days of
culture. The recipient females were sacrificed on day 15.5 of gestation. The number of implanta-
tion sites, fetuses, moles and any gross abnormalities found were noted.
Results : There was no significant difference in the number of embryos reaching morula
stage after two days of culture between the two groups (X
2
=0.86, P>0.05). Implantation and preg-
nancy loss rates between the two groups were within comparable ranges. Crown-rump length was
significantly higher in the group of embryos exposed to ammonium chloride (t=2.46, P

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