J Med Assoc Thai 2013; 96 (12):161

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Sodium Intake and Socio-Demographic Determinants of the Non-Compliance with Daily Sodium Intake Recommendations: Thai NHES IV
Satheannoppakao W Mail, Kasemsup R , Inthawong R , Chariyalertsak S , Sangthong R , Taneepanichskul S , Putwatana P , Kessomboon P , Aekplakorn W

Objective: To estimate daily intake of sodium and examine the relation of socio-demographic factors with sodium intake exceeding the recommendations.
Material and Method: Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey IV (NHES IV) conducted during 2008-2009 were used. The 24-hour-dietary-recall data were available for a subsample of 10% of the total participants. All food and beverage data were analyzed for amount of total daily sodium intake for each person. In statistical analyses, descriptive statistics were employed to describe participants’ characteristics, quantities of dietary sodium and percentages of participants noncompliant with daily sodium intake recommendations. Logistic regression was used to examine socio-demographic determinants of sodium intake exceeding the recommendations.
Results: 2,969 participants participated in this study. Sodium intake varied by socio-demographics. Percentages of participants non-compliant with sodium intake recommendations ranged from 75.3 (>1,500 mg) to 52.0 (>2,400 mg) for those aged <16 years and from 86.3 (>1,500 mg) to 67.6 (>2,400 mg) for those aged >16 years. In the younger group, age and region were key determinants of consuming sodium exceeding all recommendations. Having family income between 5,000 and <10,000 baht/month was significantly associated with sodium intake exceeding recommendation targets. In the older group, being female and increasing age reduced a risk of non-compliance with some recommendations; oppositely, region and residential area participants lived significantly, increased non-compliant risk.
Conclusion: Most participants consumed dietary sodium exceeding current recommendations. Effective programs to reduce sodium intake in Thais are critical.

Keywords: Sodium, Socio-demegraphic determinants, Recommendations, Thai NHES

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