J Med Assoc Thai 2016; 99 (10):1073

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A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion With and Without Bone Marrow Concentrate Augmentation in Single-Level Lumbar Spondylolisthesis
Chotivichit A Mail, Ruangchainikom M , Tongdee T , Wongkajornsilp A , Permpikul P , Korwutthikulrangsri E

Background: Bone marrow (BM), which is a good source of stem cells and biological factors, has the potential to enhance bone fusion. Simple centrifugation technique is one of the procedures used to concentrate BM aspirate for increasing number of cells. However, there are limited clinical study for using BM concentrate augmentation in spinal fusion.
Objective: This study was designed to examine the spinal fusion enhancement effects of bone marrow (BM) concentrate augmentation on poster lateral lumbar fusion (PLF) with autologous local bone graft in terms of both quality and quantity, as compared with a control procedure without BM concentrate augmentation.
Material and Method: Twelve patients with L4-L5 spondylolisthesis scheduled for PLF after decompressive laminectomy and pedicle screw instrumentation were included in this study. This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted at Siriraj Hospital during the 2009 to 2012 study period. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups. One group underwent PLF with local bone graft with BM concentrate augmentation (BM group) and the other group underwent PLF with local bone graft only (non-BM group). Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months after PLF. Bone fusion quality was evaluated by bony bridging on 3D-CT imaging. Fusion mass volumes were
measured on quantitative 3D-CT scans at 1 week and 6 months, postoperatively.
Results: Clinical outcome scores did not differ between groups. Six-month postoperative 3D-CT imaging showed complete PLF bridging in 58.3% and 100% of patients in the BM and non-BM groups, respectively. PLF mass volumes were decreased at 6 months by 51.1% in the BM group and by 48.5% in the non-BM group. One patient in the BM group had local inflammation at the BM aspiration site.
Conclusion: Bone marrow concentrate augmentation in this small randomized controlled trial failed to demonstrate positive effects on autologous local bone graft in posterolateral lumbar fusion relative to both quality and quantity. The high percentage of incomplete bridging should also be noted and further investigated.

Keywords: Bone marrow, Spinal fusion, CT scan, Bone graft, Spondylolisthesis, Posterolateral lumbar fusion

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