J Med Assoc Thai 2018; 101 (9):1289-95

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Prevalence and Associated Factors of Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Hospital-Based Study
Srihatrai P Mail, Hlowchitsieng T

Background: Diabetes mellitus [DM] is one the most diseases in non-communicable diseases [NCDs] clinic at Suddhavej Hospital. Diabetic retinopathy [DR], the microvascular complication, is one of the leading causes of visual impairment in these patients.

Objective: To report the prevalence of DR and determine the associated factors of DR in type 2 diabetic patients at Suddhavej Hospital, Mahasarakham University.

Materials and Methods: The present report was a hospital-based study carried out between January and June 2017 at Suddhavej Hospital. Two hundred and twenty-two diabetic patients attending NCDs clinic were recruited. All patients were assessed for diabetic microvascular complications, they were given comprehensive eye examinations by two ophthalmologists, and their laboratory results were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: no DR and DR. The Chi-squared test and logistic regression were used to identify associated factors.

Results: Of the 443 eyes examined (one eye with severe cataract was excluded), the prevalence of DR was 26.0% (n = 115), 22.8% (n = 101) for non-proliferative DR [NPDR], and 3.2% (n = 14) for proliferative DR [PDR]. Male gender, longer duration of diabetes, serum creatinine level, and serum glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] level were found to be risk factors for DR as determined by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis, adjusted for age and gender, revealed two risk factors, serum creatinine level (odds ratio of 24.07, 95% CI 2.79 to 207.94, p = 0.004) and HbA1c (odds ratio of 5.42, 95% CI 1.68 to 17.44, p = 0.005).

Conclusion: The prevalence of DR is comparable to nationwide statistics. Nephropathy by serum creatinine level and high level of HbA1c showed significant negative influence on diabetic retinal microvascular complications.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic retinopathy [DR], Prevalence, Risk factor

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